Rare Medical News

Congenital laryngeal palsy

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Congenital laryngeal palsy is also known as congenital vocal cord paralysis. It represents 15%-20% of all cases of congenital anomalies of the larynx. It may affect one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) vocal cords. The cause of bilateral paralysis of the vocal cords is often unknown (idiopathic). In some cases, paralysis may be secondary to the…

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Congenital pseudoarthrosis

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Properdin deficiency, X-linked

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Conjunctivitis with Pseudomembrane

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TARP syndrome

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Q87.8

TARP syndrome is a rare condition affecting males that causes several birth defects. TARP stands for Talipes equinovarus, Atrial septal defect, Robin sequence, and Persistent left superior vena cava. Those with TARP syndrome have clubfoot deformity (talipes equinovarus) and congenital heart defects involving failure of the upper heart chambers to close (atrial septal defect). The…

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Corneal neuropathic disease

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Plasmablastic lymphoma

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C83.3

Plasmablastic lymphoma is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Although the condition most commonly occurs in the oral cavity, it can be diagnosed in many other parts of the body such as the gastrointestinal tract, lymph nodes, and skin. The exact underlying cause of plasmablastic lymphoma is poorly understood; however, it is often associated with suppression…

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Q fever

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A78

Q fever is a worldwide disease with acute and chronic stages caused by the bacteria known as Coxiella burnetii. Cattle, sheep, and goats are the primary reservoirs although a variety of species may be infected. Organisms are excreted in birth fluids, milk, urine, and feces of infected animals and are able to survive for long…

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Warman Mulliken Hayward syndrome

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Q75.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1541 Definition Craniosynostosis, Boston type is a form of syndromic craniosynostosis, characterized by a highly variable craniosynostosis with frontal bossing, turribrachycephaly and cloverleaf skull anomaly. Hypoplasia of the supraorbital ridges, cleft palate, extra teeth and…

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Premature aging Okamoto type

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Hairy elbows

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Q84.2

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2220 Definition Hypertrichosis cubiti is a rare hair anomaly characterized by symmetrical, congenital or early-onset, bilateral hypertrychosis localized on the externsor surfaces of the upper extremities (especially the elbows). Short stature, or other abnormalities, such…

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Cryptococcosis

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Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

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B33.4+ J17.1*

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe, respiratory disease caused by infection with a hantavirus. People can become infected with a hantavirus through contact with hantavirus-infected rodents or their saliva, urine and/or droppings. Early symptoms universally include fatigue, fever and muscle aches (especially in the thighs, hips, and/or back), and sometimes include headaches, dizziness, chills,…

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Cutaneous photosensitivity and colitis, lethal

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L57.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2881 Definition Cutaneous photosensitivity and lethal colitisis is a rare inflammatory bowel disease (see this term) characterized by early cutaneous photosensitivity manifesting by sun-induced facial erythematous and vesicular lesions and severe recurent colitis which lead…

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Pyruvate kinase deficiency, liver type

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Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis

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E85.4+ I68.0*

Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (HCHWA) is a neurological condition in which an abnormal protein (amyloid) builds up in the walls of the arteries of the brain (and less frequently, veins). This process is known as amyloid deposition, which can lead to strokes, seizures, neurological deficits, cognitive decline, and dementia. Symptoms usually present before the 5th…

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Cysticercosis

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Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. The condition develops when tapeworm eggs, which can be found in contaminated food, enter the body and form cysticeri (cysts). In most cases, the worms stay in the muscles and do not cause symptoms. However, symptoms may be present when the infection is found…

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Renal genital middle ear anomalies

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Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with hypothyroidism and ciliary dyskinesia

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Q82.4

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with hypothyroidism and ciliary dyskinesia is a rare condition characterized by alopecia (hair loss); nail dystrophy (abnormal development of the nails); ophthalmic (eye-related) complications; thyroid dysfunction (primary hypothyroidism); hypohidrosis; ephelides (freckles); enteropathy (disease of the intestine); and respiratory tract infections due to ciliary dyskinesia.[1] These features have lead to the acronym ANOTHER syndrome…

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Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

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A81.1

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) a rare condition that is caused by a measles infection acquired earlier in life. Signs and symptoms of the condition primarily affect the central nervous system and often develop approximately 7 to 10 years after a person recovers from the measles. Affected people may initially experience behavioral changes, dementia, and disturbances…

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Rippling muscle disease

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G71.8

Rippling muscle disease (RMD) is a rare condition that primarily affects the muscles. It belongs to a group of conditions known as caveolinopathies. Signs and symptoms of the condition generally begin during late childhood or adolescence, although the age of onset can vary widely. It is characterized by signs of increased muscle irritability, including percussion-induced rapid contractions…

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Microsomia hemifacial radial defects

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Q75.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2549 Definition Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) with radial defects is a rare branchial arches and limb primordia development disorder characterized by variable degrees of unior bilateral craniofacial malformation and radial defects that result in extremely variable…

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Deafness hypogonadism syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 90646 Definition This syndrome is characterized by the association of congenital mixed hearing loss with perilymphatic gusher (Gusher syndrome or DFN3; see this term), hypogonadism and abnormal behavior. Epidemiology It has been described in five…

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SARS

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Abetalipoproteinemia

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E78.6

Abetalipoproteinemia is a very rare condition that affects fat and vitamin absorption by the intestines and liver, leading to very low LDL-cholesterol and malnutrition. Early symptoms of this condition include diarrhea, vomiting, and poor growth. Without treatment, later complications may include muscle weakness, poor night and color vision, tremors, and speech difficulties.[1][2] The long-term outcome can…

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Deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 210115 Definition Sterile multifocal osteomyelitis with periostitis and pustulosis is a rare, severe, genetic autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by usually neonatal onset of generalized neutrophilic cutaneous pustulosis and severe, recurrent, multifocal, aseptic osteomyelitis with marked periostitis,…

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Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

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Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare balance disorder characterized by auditory and/or vestibular symptoms. These might include dizziness and vertigo triggered by heavy lifting, straining, coughing or loud sounds that change the middle ear or intracranial pressure, fullness in the ear, autophony (an echo or reverberation in the ear when speaking, chewing or…

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Alpha-thalassemia-abnormal morphogenesis

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Dyssynergia cerebellaris myoclonica

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Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Shohat type

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Q77.7

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 93352 Definition Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia congenita, Shohat type is characterized by severely disproportionate short stature, short limbs, small chest, short neck, thin lips, severe lumbar lordosis, marked genu varum, joint laxity, distended abdomen, mild hepatomegaly and…

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Episodic ataxia with nystagmus

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G11.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 97 Definition Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is the most frequent form of Hereditary episodic ataxia (EA; see this term) characterized by paroxysmal episodes of ataxia lasting hours, with interictal nystagmus and mildly progressive ataxia….

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Dextrocardia with situs inversus

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Dextrocardia with situs inversus is a condition that is characterized by abnormal positioning of the heart and other internal organs. In people affected by dextrocardia, the tip of the heart points towards the right side of the chest instead of the left side. Situs inversus refers to the mirror-image reversal of the organs in the…

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Simultanagnosia

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Adult-onset immunodeficiency with anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies

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Adult-onset immunodeficiency with antiinterferon-gamma autoantibodies is an immunodeficiency disorder. It is associated with susceptibility to disseminated infections (dispersed throughout the body) caused by organisms that typically affect only people with weak immune systems (opportunistic pathogens).[1] People with this disorder produce higher amounts of anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies. These are specific immune system proteins that mistakenly target a person’s…

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Dicarboxylic aminoaciduria

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E72.0

Dicarboxylic aminoaciduria is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by the excessive loss of aspartate and glutamate in urine. Symptoms have varied greatly among the few reported cases.[1][2] Dicarboxylic aminoaciduria is caused by mutations in the SLC1A1 gene. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion.[2]

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Spastic paraplegia 2

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G11.4

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 99015 Definition A rare, X-linked leukodystrophy characterized primarily by spastic gait and autonomic dysfunction. When additional central nervous system (CNS) signs, such as intellectual deficit, ataxia, or extrapyramidal signs, are present, the syndrome is referred…

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Acrodysplasia scoliosis

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Q87.5

Acrodysplasia scoliosis is a rare condition that has been reported in two brothers. The condition is characterized by scoliosis, brachydactyly (unusually short fingers and toes), spina bifida occulta, and carpal synostosis (fused bones of the wrist). The underlying genetic cause of the condition is unknown, but it appears to be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner….

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Dilated cardiomyopathy 1A

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Spondylospinal thoracic dysostosis

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Spondylospinal thoracic dysostosis is an extremely rare skeletal disorder characterized by a short, curved spine and fusion of the spinous processes, short thorax with ‘crab-like’ configuration of the ribs, underdevelopment of the lungs (pulmonary hypoplasia), severe arthrogryposis and multiple pterygia (webbing of the skin across joints), and underdevelopment of the bones of the mouth. This condition is…

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Duane-radial ray syndrome

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Q87.8

Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS) is a disorder that affects the eyes and causes abnormalities of bones in the arms and hands. This condition is characterized by a particular problem with eye movement called Duane anomaly (also known as Duane syndrome). Other features include bone abnormalities in the hands (malformed or absent thumbs, an extra thumb, or…

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Distal myopathy with vocal cord weakness

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G71.0

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 600 Definition Vocal cord and pharyngeal distal myopathy (VCPDM) is a rare autosomal dominant distal myopathy characterized by adult onset of muscle weakness in the feet and hands (slowly progressing to involve proximal limb muscles)…

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Thymic-Renal-Anal-Lung dysplasia

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Q87.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 3326 Definition This syndrome is characterised by intrauterine growth retardation, renal dysgenesis and a unilobed or absent thymus. Epidemiology It has been described in three girls born to a nonconsanguineous couple. Clinical description Two of…

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Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

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C94.2

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 518 Definition A rare acute myeloid leukemia that occurs predominantly in childhood and particularly in children with Down syndrome (DS-AMKL). Nonspecific symptoms may be irritability, weakness, and dizziness while specific symptoms include pallor, fever, mucocutaneous…

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Tetraamelia-multiple malformations syndrome

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Q87.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 3301 Definition Tetraamelia multiple malformations is an extremely rare mostly lethal congenital disorder characterized by absence of all four limbs and frequent associated major malformations involving the head, face, eyes, skeleton, heart, lungs, anus, urogenital,…

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Adenosine Deaminase 2 deficiency

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M30.8

Adenosine Deaminase 2 deficiency is an inherited disorder causing inflammation in the body, especially in the tissues that make up the blood vessels (vasculitis). [1][2] Though the severity and age of onset can vary, most patients begin having symptoms within the first decade of life. Symptoms may include the following: recurrent strokes, fevers, muscle pain,…

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Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria

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L81.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 241 Definition A rare, genetic, pigmentation anomaly of the skin characterized by generalized, irregularly shaped, asymptomatic, hyperand hypopigmented macules distributed in a reticular pattern involving the trunk, limbs, and sometimes the face. The palms, soles…

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Trachoma

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Anemia due to Adenosine triphosphatase deficiency

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Langer mesomelic dysplasia

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Q87.1

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2632 Definition A rare, genetic skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe disproportionate short stature with mesomelic and rhizomelic shortening of the upper and lower limbs. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown. More than 100 cases have…

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Urea cycle disorders

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A urea cycle disorder is a genetic disorder that results in a deficiency of one of the six enzymes in the urea cycle. These enzymes are responsible for removing ammonia from the blood stream. The urea cycle involves a series of biochemical steps in which nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, is changed to a compound…

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Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 44 Definition A variant of intermediate severity of the PBD-Zellweger syndrome spectrum (PBD-ZSS) charcterized by hypotonia, leukodystrophy, and vision and sensorineural hearing deficiencies. Phenotypic overlap is seen between NALD and infantile Refsum disease (IRD). Epidemiology…

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Dystrophinopathy

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Vibrio vulnificus infection

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Syndromic microphthalmia, type 3

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Q87.8

Syndromic microphthalmia, type 3 is a rare condition that affects the eyes and other parts of the body. Babies with this condition are generally born without eyeballs (anophthalmia) or with eyes that are unusually small (microphthalmia). Both of these abnormalities can be associated with severe vision loss. Other signs and symptoms of syndromic microphthalmia, type…

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Epidermolysis bullosa simplex, generalized

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Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), generalized is a form of epidermolysis bullosa, a group of genetic conditions that cause the skin to be fragile and blister easily. This disorder usually presents at birth or during infancy and results in widespread blisters over the body’s surface.[1][2][3] Though it is not a common feature of this type, scarring may occur. There…

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X-linked myotubular myopathy

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G71.2

X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a type of centronuclear myopathy, which is a group of rare, inherited conditions that affect the muscles. XLMTM, specifically, occurs almost exclusively in males and is characterized by progressive muscle weakness (myopathy) and decreased muscle tone (hypotonia) that can range from mild to severe. The muscle problems impair the development…

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Dysgnathia complex

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Q87.8

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Noble Bass Sherman syndrome

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Q15.8

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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

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Elective mutism

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Albright like syndrome

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Hepatic encephalopathy

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Hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome observed in some patients with cirrhosis. It is defined as a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with liver dysfunction, when other known brain disease has been excluded.[1] Signs and symptoms may be debilitating, and they can begin mildly and gradually, or occur suddenly and severely.[2] They may include personality or mood changes, intellectual…

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Allergic encephalomyelitis

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Epidermal nevus vitamin D resistant rickets

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Schindler disease type 1

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E77.1

Schindler disease is an inherited condition that primarily causes neurological problems. There are three types of Schindler disease. Schindler disease type 1, also called the infantile type, is the most severe form. Babies with this condition appear healthy a birth, but by the age of 8 to 15 months they stop developing new skills and…

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Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp

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Amelogenesis imperfecta

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Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) (amelogenesis – enamel formation; imperfecta imperfect) is a disorder that affects the structure and appearance of the enamel of the teeth. This condition causes teeth to be unusually small, discolored, pitted or grooved, and prone to rapid wear and breakage with early tooth decay and loss. These dental problems, which vary among affected individuals, can affect both…

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Exencephaly

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Amyotonia congenita

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Faciocardiomelic dysplasia lethal

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Familial episodic pain syndrome

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M79.6

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 391384 Definition Familial episodic pain syndrome is a rare, genetic, peripheral neuropathy disorder characterized by recurrent, stereotyped, episodic intense pain, ocurring predominantly in either the upper body or lower limbs in several members of a…

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Angiosarcoma of the scalp

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Angiosarcoma of the scalp is a very rare cancer which most commonly affects the elderly. Symptoms of this condition begin with a bruise-like lesions that progresses to an open or bleeding wound. These lesions will grow in size and, without treatment, the cancer will spread to other parts of the body (metastasis), usually the lungs….

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Lipomyelomeningocele

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Anonychia ectrodactyly

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FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency

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NF-kappa B Essential Modulator Deficiency

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D84.8

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Progestogen hypersensitivity

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Progestogen hypersensitivity causes a skin reaction that typically occurs during a woman’s menstrual cycle. Symptoms usually begin 3-10 days before a woman’s period and go away when her period is over. Skin symptoms may include rash, swelling, itching, hives, and red, flaky patches. More severe symptoms can include open sores, wheezing, and an asthma-like reaction. Progestogen hypersensitivity…

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Fetal akinesia syndrome X-linked

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Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma

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Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma is a rare condition affecting the palms of the hands. It is characterized by the appearance or worsening of a palmar eruption, following brief exposure to water. The palmar eruption is made up of small, white or shining pimples that can conjoin into plaques. The feet are unaffected. Symptoms include a burning…

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Gingival fibromatosis, 2

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Joubert syndrome with oculorenal anomalies

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Q04.3

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2318 Definition A rare subtype of Joubert syndrome (JS) and related disorders (JSRD) characterized by the neurological features of JS associated with both renal and ocular disease. Epidemiology Prevalence is unknown. Clinical description Patients present…

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Infantile histiocytoid cardiomyopathy

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I42.0

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 137675 Definition Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy is an arrhythmogenic disorder characterised by cardiomegaly, severe cardiac arrhythmias or sudden death, and the presence of histiocyte-like cells within the myocardium. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown but less than 100…

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Arthrogryposis due to muscular dystrophy

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Freiberg’s disease

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Freiberg’s disease is rare condition that primarily affects the second or third metatarsal (the long bones of the foot). Although people of all ages can be affected by this condition, Freiberg’s disease is most commonly diagnosed during adolescence through the second decade of life. Common signs and symptoms include pain and stiffness in the front…

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Ostium secundum atrial septal defect

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Q21.1

An ostium secundum atrial septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect called an atrial septal defect (ASD). An ASD is a hole in the wall (septum) between the two upper chambers of the heart (the atria). ASDs can be classified by location. An ostium secundum ASD is a hole in the center of…

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Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

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E72.8

Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a disorder that can cause a variety of neurological and neuromuscular problems. The signs and symptoms can be extremely variable among affected individuals and may include mild to severe intellectual disability; developmental delay (especially involving speech); hypotonia; difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia); and/or seizures. Some affected individuals may also have decreased reflexes (hyporeflexia);…

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Spinocerebellar ataxia X-linked type 4

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G11.1

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 85292 Definition Spinocerebellar ataxia, X-linked, type 4 is characterised by ataxia, pyramidal tract signs and adult-onset dementia. It has been described in three generations of one large family. The disease manifests during early childhood with…

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Gastric duplication cysts

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Rhabdoid tumor

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C49.9

Rhabdoid tumor (RT) is an aggressive pediatric soft tissue sarcoma that arises in the kidney, the liver, the peripheral nerves and all miscellaneous soft-parts throughout the body. RT involving the central nervous system (CNS) is called atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. RT usually occurs in infancy or childhood. In most cases, the first symptoms are linked…

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Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone

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Glaucoma sleep apnea

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2085 Definition Glaucoma-sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by sleep apnoea associated with glaucoma. It has been described in five members of a family (the mother and four of her children). Visit the Orphanet disease page…

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Glycogen storage disease type 1B

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E74.0

Glycogen storage disease type 1B (GSD1B) is an inherited condition in which the body is unable to break down a complex sugar called glycogen. As a result, glycogen accumulates in cells throughout the body. In GSD1B, specifically, glycogen and fats build up within the liver and kidneys which can cause these organs to be enlarged…

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Pachygyria, frontotemporal

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Gonadal dysgenesis XY type associated anomalies

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Troyer syndrome

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G11.4

Troyer syndrome is a neurological disorder and one of the many types of hereditary spastic paraplegia.[1][2] Signs and symptoms typically begin in early childhood and may include progressive muscle weakness and stiffness (spasticity) in the legs; muscle wasting in the hands and feet; paraplegia; leg contractures; developmental delays; speech difficulty; mood swings; and short stature.[2][3][1]…

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Growth hormone insensitivity with immunodeficiency

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E34.3

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 181393 Definition Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS) is a group of diseases characterized by marked short stature associated with normal or elevated growth hormone (GH) concentrations, which fail to respond to exogenous GH administration. GHIS…

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Baby rattle pelvic dysplasia

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Non-A-E hepatitis

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Non-A-E hepatitis, sometimes referred to as hepatitis X, is a disease of the liver that is diagnosed when there is swelling of the liver (hepatitis) but examination and testing does not identify a cause. Symptoms of non-A-E hepatitis may include feeling tired or unwell (malaise), nausea, vomiting, pain in the abdomen, and fever. Non-A-E hepatitis usually…

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Bardet-Biedl syndrome 5

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Herrmann syndrome

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