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Disease Profile

Acquired pure red cell aplasia

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

-

ICD-10

D60.0

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Idiopathic pure red cell aplasia; Adult pure red cell aplasia; Acquired PRCA

Categories

Blood Diseases

Summary

Acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a bone marrow disorder characterized by a reduction of red blood cells (erythrocytes) produced by the bone marrow. Signs and symptoms may include fatigue, lethargy, and/or abnormal paleness of the skin (pallor) due to the anemia the caused by the disorder.[1] In most cases, the cause of acquired PRCA is unknown (idiopathic). In other cases it may occur secondary to autoimmune disorders, tumors of the thymus gland (thymomas), hematologic cancers, solid tumors, viral infections, or certain drugs.[1][2] Treatment depends on the cause of the condition (if known) but often includes transfusions for individuals who are severely anemic and have cardiorespiratory failure.[2]

Treatment

The main goals of treatment for pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) are to restore the production of red blood cells, maintain adequate hemoglobin levels, and treat underlying disorders that may be causing the condition. The initial treatment plan typically includes blood transfusions for individuals who are severely anemic and have cardiorespiratory failure.[2] PRCA due to medication or infections is usually reversible within a few months. Therefore, medications that may be causing the condition should be discontinued, and infections that may cause the condition should be treated.[2] Underlying conditions that may cause PRCA such as a thymoma, hematological cancers, solid tumors, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) should be treated as necessary as well.[2] When the condition is idiopathic (of unknown cause) or due to an autoimmune disorder, PRCA is typically initially treated with corticosteroids.[2]

It has been reported that individuals who seem to be resistant to treatment may respond to a single course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG,) while others have responded to a single dose. In the United States, financial issues may make it difficult to obtain this treatment because IVIG is expensive and is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat PRCA.[3]

Additional and more detailed information about the management of acquired PRCA may be found on eMedicine's web site and can be viewed by clicking here.

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Providing General Support

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    Where to Start

    • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

      In-Depth Information

      • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
      • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
      • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Acquired pure red cell aplasia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

        References

        1. Pure Red Cell Aplasia, Acquired. NORD. August 7, 2007; https://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/506/viewAbstract. Accessed 12/14/2011.
        2. Paul Schick. Pure Red Cell Aplasia. eMedicine. October 25, 2011; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/205695-overview. Accessed 12/14/2011.
        3. Stanley L Schrier. Acquired pure red cell aplasia. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2011;

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