Rare Medical News

Disease Profile

Juvenile-onset dystonia

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.



US Estimated


Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Dystonia, juvenile-onset


Congenital and Genetic Diseases


Juvenile-onset dystonia is a form of dystonia, which is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause repetitive movements and/or abnormal postures. The severity and frequency of the movements vary significantly; in some affected people, they may be barely noticeable while in others, the movements are severely disabling and painful. Dystonia can affect just one muscle, a group of muscles or all muscles of the body. Other signs and symptoms of the condition may include a tremor or other neurologic features. In juvenile-onset dystonia, specifically, affected people develop features of the condition between the ages of 13 and 20 years. The underlying cause of juvenile-onset dystonia is poorly understood in most cases.[1][2] Changes (mutations) in the ACTB gene that are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner have been identified in some families with the condition.[1] Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present in each person and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, and other treatments to reduce or eliminate muscle spasms and pain.[3][2]


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Clouding of the lens of the eye
Cloudy lens

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Cleft palate
Cleft roof of mouth
Cleft upper lip
Externally rotated hips
Generalized dystonia
High forehead
Hypoplastic scapulae
Small shoulder blade
Intellectual disability, mild
Mental retardation, borderline-mild
Mild and nonprogressive mental retardation
Mild mental retardation

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Mild global developmental delay
Sensorineural hearing impairment
Small for gestational age
Birth weight less than 10th percentile
Low birth weight

[ more ]



Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.


    Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

    Organizations Supporting this Disease

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

        In-Depth Information

        • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
        • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
        • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
        • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Juvenile-onset dystonia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


          1. DYSTONIA, JUVENILE-ONSET. OMIM. September 2015; https://www.omim.org/entry/607371.
          2. Elizabeth A Moberg-Wolff, MD. Dystonias. Medscape Reference. November 2014; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/312648-overview#a1.
          3. Dystonias Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. February 2016; https://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dystonias/detail_dystonias.htm.