Rare Medical News

Disease Profile

Mycetoma

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

All ages

ageofonset-all.svg

ICD-10

B47.0 B47.1 B47.9

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

no.svg

Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

no.svg

X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

no.svg

X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

no.svg

Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

no.svg

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

no.svg

Not applicable

notapplicable.svg

Other names (AKA)

Madura foot

Categories

Bacterial infections; Fungal infections

Summary

Mycetoma is a chronic infection that is caused by fungi or actinomycetes (bacteria that produce filaments, like fungi). The first symptom of the condition is generally painless swelling beneath the skin, which progresses to a nodule (lump) over several years. Eventually, affected people experience massive swelling and hardening of the affected area; skin rupture; and formation of sinus tracts (holes) that discharge pus and grains filled with organisms. Some affected people have no discomfort while others report itching and/or pain.[1][2] Mycetoma is rare in the United States, but is commonly diagnosed in Africa, Mexico and India. In these countries, it occurs most frequently in farmers, shepherds, and people living in rural areas. Frequent exposure to penetrating wounds by thorns or splinters is a risk factor.[1] Treatment varies based on the cause of the condition and may include antibiotics or antifungal medications.[2]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Cobblestone-like hyperkeratosis
0031288
Prominent superficial veins
Prominent veins
0001015
Recurrent bacterial skin infections
0005406
Recurrent fungal infections
0002841
Stiff skin
0030053
Structural foot deformity
0010219
Subcutaneous nodule
Firm lump under the skin
Growth of abnormal tissue under the skin

[ more ]

0001482
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Abnormality of forearm bone
0040072
Abnormality of the hand
Abnormal hands
Hand anomalies
Hand deformities

[ more ]

0001155
Abnormality of the knee
0002815
Abnormality of the lymphatic system
0100763
Cutaneous cyst
0025245
Osteomyelitis
Bone infection
0002754
Osteoporosis
0000939
1%-4% of people have these symptoms
Abdominal mass
0031500
Abnormal form of the vertebral bodies
0003312
Abnormal thorax morphology
Abnormality of the chest
0000765
Back pain
0003418
Bone cyst
Bone cysts
0012062
Painless fractures due to injury
0002661
Paraplegia
Leg paralysis
0010550
Pathologic fracture
Spontaneous fracture
0002756
Pelvic mass
0031501
Scalp tenderness
0100809
Vertebral compression fractures
Compression fracture
0002953

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • DermNet NZ is an online resource about skin diseases developed by the New Zealand Dermatological Society Incorporated. DermNet NZ provides information about this condition.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Merck Manual for health care professionals provides information on Mycetoma.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Mycetoma. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Basilio J Anía, MD. Mycetoma. Medscape Reference. April 2015; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211459-overview.
  2. Mycetoma. DermNet NZ. April 2014; https://www.dermnetnz.org/fungal/mycetoma.html.