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Hypopituitarism refers to deficiency of one or more hormones produced by the anterior pituitary or released from the posterior pituitary




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Age of Onset





Autosomal dominant


Autosomal recessive




X-linked dominant


X-linked recessive


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Hypopituitarism is defined as the total or partial loss of anterior and posterior pituitary gland function that is caused by pituitary or hypothalamic disorders. The first known report of hypopituitarism was made by the German physician and pathologist Morris Simmonds.


5 Facts you should know



Hypopituitarism refers to deficiency of one or more hormones produced by the anterior pituitary or released from the posterior pituitary



Onset can be acute or insidious, and the most common cause in adulthood is a pituitary adenoma, or treatment with pituitary surgery or radiotherapy



Most commonly, growth hormone (GH) is lost first, then gonadotropins, and finally thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)



Pituitary dysfunction must be distinguished from anorexia nervosa , chronic liver disease, myotonia dystrophica, polyglandular autoimmune disease



Hypopituitarism is associated with excess mortality, a key risk factor being cortisol deficiency due to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency

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Hypopituitarism is also known as...

Hypopituitarism is also known as:

  • Pituitary insufficiency

What’s your Rare IQ?

In hyopituitarism, which hormone is usually the first hormone to stop being produced by the pituitary gland?

Common signs & symptoms

Symptoms vary depending on what hormones are insufficiently produced from the pituitary gland. The symptoms of hypopituitarism may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Common symptoms include:

Small penis in males

Very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)

Slowed growth and short stature

Slowed sexual development

Prolonged jaundice at birth

Poor appetite

Weight loss or weight gain

Sensitivity to cold

Facial puffiness

Current treatments

Hypopituitarism is a condition characterized by a deficiency in the production of one or more hormones by the pituitary gland. Treatment of hypopituitarism involves replacement therapy with the deficient hormones. The choice of hormone replacement therapy depends on the specific hormone deficiency and the patient's clinical presentation.

Growth hormone deficiency:

Growth hormone replacement therapy is recommended for children with growth hormone deficiency to promote growth and development. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is the recommended treatment for growth hormone deficiency. (Reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766142/)

Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) deficiency:

ACTH deficiency results in the lack of production of cortisol by the adrenal gland, which can lead to adrenal insufficiency. Hydrocortisone or prednisone is the recommended treatment for ACTH deficiency. (Reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005332/)

Thyroid hormone deficiency:

Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is recommended for patients with hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine is the most commonly used thyroid hormone replacement therapy. (Reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6869630/)

Gonadotropin deficiency:

Gonadotropin deficiency results in decreased production of estrogen and testosterone, leading to hypogonadism. Hormone replacement therapy with estrogen and testosterone is recommended for patients with gonadotropin deficiency. (Reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7089457/)

Prolactin deficiency:

Prolactin deficiency can cause infertility and decreased lactation. Dopamine agonist therapy is recommended for prolactin deficiency. (Reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4695143/)

Top Clinical Trials

TitleDescriptionPhasesStatusInterventionsMore Information
Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy for Retried Professional Football PlayersThis is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial with an open-label extension to evaluate the efficacy of growth hormone (GH) on cognitive functions of retired professional football players with growth hormone deficiency (GHD).Phase 2RecruitingBiological: Growth Hormone|Other: PlaceboMore Info
A Trial to Investigate Long Term Efficacy and Safety of Lonapegsomatropin in Adults With Growth Hormone DeficiencyThis is a phase 3 open-label multicenter extension study designed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of Lonapegsomatropin administered once-weekly.Phase 3RecruitingDrug: LonapegsomatropinMore Info
A Research Study of How Well Macimorelin Works to Find Out if Children Have a Lack of Growth Hormone and How Safe it isThis research study will find out if a new growth hormone stimulation test is safe and works as well as other tests to diagnose growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children.Phase 3RecruitingDrug: Macimorelin|Diagnostic Test: Arginine|Diagnostic Test: ClonidineMore Info
A Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Once-weekly Lonapegsomatropin With Placebo and a Daily Somatropin Product in Adults With Growth Hormone DeficiencyA 38 week dosing trial of lonapegsomatropin, a long-acting growth hormone product, administered once-a-week versus placebo-control. Phase 3RecruitingDrug: Lonapegsomatropin|Other: Placebo|Drug: SomatropinMore Info
Phase 2 Study of LUM-201 in Children With Growth Hormone Deficiency (OraGrowtH210 Trial)he goals of the trial are to study LUM-201 as a possible treatment for Pediatric Growth Hormone Deficiency (PGHD) and investigate a predictive enrichment marker (PEM) strategy to select subjects likely to respond to therapyPhase 2RecruitingDrug: LUM-201|Drug: rhGH Norditropin® pen (34 µg/kg)More Info
A Research Study in Children With a Low Level of Hormone to Grow. Treatment is Somapacitan Once a Week Compared to Norditropin® Once a DayThe study compares 2 medicines for children who do not have enough hormone to grow: somapacitan given once a week (a new medicine) and Norditropin® given once a dayPhase 3Active, not recruitingDrug: Somapacitan|Drug: Norditropin®More Info
A Long-Term Trial Investigating Safety and Efficacy of TransCon hGH in Children With Growth Hormone Deficiency Who Have Completed a Prior TransCon hGH Clinical TrialA multicenter, phase 3, long-term extension trial of TransCon hGH administered once-weekly in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) who previously participated in a phase 3 TransCon hGH trial.Phase 3Active, not recruitingDrug: TransCon hGHMore Info
Investigating Efficacy and Safety of Once-weekly NNC0195-0092 (Somapacitan) Treatment Compared to Daily Growth Hormone Treatment (Norditropin® FlexPro®) in Growth Hormone Treatment naïve Pre-pubertal Children With Growth Hormone DeficiencyThe aim of the trial is to investigate efficacy and safety of once-weekly NNC0195-0092 (somapacitan) treatment compared to daily growth hormone treatment (Norditropin® FlexPro®) in growth hormone treatment naïve pre-pubertal children with growth hormone deficiency.Phase 2RecruitingDrug: somapacitan|Drug: Norditropin® FlexPro® penMore Info
Safety and Efficacy Phase 3 Study of Long-acting hGH (MOD-4023) in Growth Hormone Deficient ChildrenThis will be an open-label, randomized, multicenter, efficacy and safety study of weekly MOD-4023 compared to daily Genotropin therapy in pre-pubertal children with growth hormone deficiency.Phase 3Active, not recruitingDrug: MOD-4023|Drug: SomatropinMore Info

Top Treatments in Research

AgentClass/Mechanism of ActionDevelopment StatusCompanyClinical StudiesMore Information
Growth HormoneHuman growth hormonePhase 2Center for Neurological StudiesMore InfoMore Info
MacimorelinMacimorelin acetate, the salt formulation, is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonist.Phase 3AEterna ZentarisMore InfoMore Info
LUM-201LUM-201, also known as ibutamoren, is an investigational, once-daily, orally administered small molecule that promotes the secretion of Growth Hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland.Phase 2Lumos PharmaMore InfoMore Info
SomapacitanSomapacitan is a human growth hormone analogPhase 3Novo Nordisk A/SMore InfoMore Info
TransCon hGHTransCon hGH is a prodrug of somatropin that provides sustained release of unmodified somatropin (hGH) at predictable therapeutic levels in the body.Phase 3Ascendis Pharma A/SMore InfoMore Info
MOD-4023Long-Acting C-Terminal Peptide-Modified hGHPhase 3OPKO Health, Inc.More InfoMore Info

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